Introduction to Microcontroller

Introduction to Microcontroller- When Intel presented the first microprocessor with the 4004 there was much a demand for microcontrollers: The contemporary TMS1802 Texas Instruments, designed for usage for calculators, was by the end of 1971 advertised for applications for cash registers, watches and measuring instruments. The TMS 1000, which was introduced in 1974, included RAM, ROM, and I/O on-chip and can be seen as one of the first microcontrollers, it was called a microcomputer. The first controllers to gain widespread use were the Intel 8048, which was integrated into PC keyboard.
Today, microcontroller production counts are billions per year, and the controllers are integrated into many appliances we have grown used to, like
• household appliances (microwave, washing machine, coffee machine, . . . )
• telecommunication (mobile phones)
• automotive industry (fuel injection, ABS, . . . )
• aerospace industry
• industrial automation
• . . .
But what is the microcontroller we were talking about? difference between a microprocessor?
To answer these questions, let us consider a simple toy project:

A heat control system. Assume that we want to

• periodically read the temperature (analog value, is digitized by sensor; uses 4-bit interface),• display the current temperature on a simple 3-digit numeric display (8+3 bits),
• allow the user to adjust temperature thresholds (buttons; 4 bits), and
• be able to configure/upgrade the system over a serial interface.
• control heating according to the temperature (turn heater on/off; 1 bit),