Evolution of Computer Systems PDF Download

Evolution of Computer Systems PDF Download -Over the past four decades the computer industry has experienced four generations of development. The first generation used Vacuum Tubes (1940 – 1950s) to discrete diodes to transistors (1950 – 1960s), to small and medium scale integrated circuits (1960 – 1970s) and to very large scale integrated devices (1970s and beyond). Increases in device speed and reliability and reduction in hardware cost and physical size have greatly enhanced computer performance.
The relationships between data, information, knowledge and intelligence are demonstrated. Parallel processing demands concurrent execution of many programs in a computer. The highest level of parallel processing is conducted among multiple jobs through multiprogramming, time sharing and multiprocessing

Lesson 1: Evolution of Computer Systems & Trends towards parallel Processing
Contents:
1.0 Aims and Objectives
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Introduction to Parallel Processing
1.2.1 Evolution of Computer Systems
1.2.2 Generation of Computer Systems
1.2.3 Trends towards Parallel Processing
1.3 Let us Sum Up
1.4 Lesson-end Activities
1.5 Points for Discussions
1.6 References

Lesson 2 : Parallelism in Uniprocessor Systems
Contents:
2.0 Aims and Objectives
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Parallelism in Uniprocessor Systems
2.2.1 Basic Uniprocessor Architecture
2.2.2 Parallel Processing Mechanisms
2.3 Let us Sum Up
2.4 Lesson-end Activities
2.5 Points for discussions
2.6 References
2.0 Aims and Objectives
The main aim of this lesson is to know the architectural concepts of Uniprocessor systems. The
development of Uniprocessor system will be introduced categorically.
2.1 Introduction
The typical Uniprocessor system consists of three major components: the main memory, the Central processing unit (CPU) and the Input-output (I/O) sub-system. The CPU contains an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) with an optional floating-point accelerator, and some local cache memory with an optional diagnostic memory. The CPU, the main memory and the I/O
subsystems are all connected to a common bus, the synchronous backplane interconnect (SBI) through this bus, all I/O device scan communicate with each other, with the CPU, or with the memory. A number of parallel processing mechanisms have been developed in uniprocessor computers and they are identified as multiplicity of functional units, parallelism and pipelining within the CPU, overlapped CPU and I/O operations, use of a hierarchical memory system, multiprogramming and time sharing, multiplicity of functional units.

Lesson 3: Parallel Computer Structures
Contents
:
3.0 Aims and Objectives
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Parallel Computer Structures
3.2.1 Pipeline Computers
3.2.2 Array Processors
3.2.3 Multiprocessor Systems
3.3 Let us Sum Up
3.4 Lesson-end Activities
3.5 Points for discussions
3.6 References
3 Aims and Objectives
The main objective of this lesson is to learn the parallel computers three architectural configurations called pipelined computers, Array Processors, and Multiprocessor Systems.
3.1 Introduction
Parallel computers are those systems that emphasize parallel processing. The process of executing an instruction in a digital computer involves 4 major steps namely Instruction fetch, Instruction decoding, Operand fetch, Execution.
In a pipelined computer successive instructions are executed in an overlapped fashion. In a non pipelined computer these four steps must be completed before the next instructions can be issued. An array processor is a synchronous parallel computer with multiple arithmetic logic units called processing elements (PE) that can operate in parallel in lock step fashion. By replication one can achieve spatial parallelism. The PEs are synchronized to perform the same function at the same time. A basic multiprocessor contains two or more processors of comparable capabilities. All processors share access to common sets of memory modules, I/O channels and peripheral devices.

Book Name : Evolution of Computer Systems

Number of PDF Pages : 160
Language : English

Evolution of Computer Systems, parallel Processing & Architectural Classification Schemes PDF Download from the below link.

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